It is a simple technique used by gynaecologists for assessing ovarian follicles at regular intervals for tracking and documenting ovulation in women who are trying to get pregnant.
It is a serial ultrasound done mostly by transvaginal route.
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Follicles are not oocytes. The follicle is a functional anatomical structure which forms part of the ovary and the egg is the cell that will mature in a microscopic part of the inner wall of a follicle over spontaneous or stimulated ovarian cycle in normal conditions .It also contains other cell types which produce oestrogen required for normal development of egg maturation
Follicular phase is the part of the menstrual cycle before ovulation. It can vary for each woman, also can vary from cycle to cycle in the same woman.
Luteal phase is the part of menstrual cycle from ovulation till the next menses. It is 14 days and it is constant for all women.
So it becomes important to monitor follicular phase till ovulation to accurately predict ovulation, as incorrect monitoring of fertile period or ovulation phase can be a frequent cause of infertility.
Anovulation also can be documented.
Follicular monitoring is a simple tool which can aid in fertility treatments in natural cycle , IUI and in IVF where the ovaries are stimulated with high dose of injections. It has no harmful effects.