Infertility is defined as not being able to get pregnant despite having frequent, unprotected sex for at least a year.
To get pregnant, all the steps during ovulation and fertilization need to happen correctly. The causes of infertility can be present from birth or can develop later in life. The infertility causes can affect one or both partners. In general:
In about one-third of cases, there is an issue with the male.
In about one-third of cases, there is an issue with the female.
In remaining cases, there are issues with both the male and female.
Abnormal sperm production or function due to undescended testicles, genetic defects, health problems such as diabetes or infections such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, mumps or HIV.
The problems with the delivery of sperm due to problems like premature ejaculation, certain genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis and structural problems such as a blockage in the testicle, damage or injury to the reproductive organs.
Problems with the delivery of sperm due to problems like premature ejaculation, certain genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis Overexposure to certain environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, and pesticides.
Frequent exposure to heat, such as in saunas or hot tubs, can raise the core body temperature and may affect sperm production.
Damage due to cancer and its treatment which includes radiation or chemotherapy. Sometimes cancer treatment can impair sperm production severely.